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The Sutras, Samkhya Philosophy

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The Sutras, Samkhya Philosophy

The Sutras are designed on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy. The division in to the Eight Limbs (Sanskrit Ashtanga) of Yoga is reminiscent of Buddhas Noble Eightfold Course; inclusion of Brahmaviharas (Yoga Sutra 1:33) likewise shows Buddhisms effect on elements of the Sutras.

In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali prescribes adherence to eight “limbs” or methods (the sum which constitute “Ashtanga Yoga”, the title of the second chapter) to quiet types mind and attain kaivalya. The Yoga Sutras form the theoretical and philosophical basis of Raja Yoga, and are considered to be the most organized and complete explanation of that discipline.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is usually a reserve of 195/6 different phrases that can be simple to memorize. Since it is a work that is every bit as much part of modern yoga since it was part of the birth of yoga, this particular e book is held in high esteem in the yoga universe.

Philosophical Background

There are some philosophical concepts, which were pondered over by several schools of thought around 600 B.C. to 400 A good.D. in eastern place of the world. The institution of Samkhya is one of those philosophical systems.

Samkhya, marks the shifting of thought from Vedic ‘monism’ to the idea of dualism as the primary cause of the universe.

In Samkhya philosophy it distinguishing between Personal (Spirit/Consciousness Purusha) and Matter/Characteristics (Prakrti) is of central importance to Samkhya Philosophy. Samkhya Philosophy elaborates a simple dualism between such aware Selves and all the phenomena that is shown to such Selves by Subject/Nature. Such phenomena of Matter/Nature incorporates reflections of the intellect, the faculty which makes things personal (the I-Maker/Ahamkara), the instinctual head (manas), the capacities to perceive sense data, the capacities to act, the guidelines of the elements of perception perception, and the gross elements. These occur when persuasive speech ideas Prakriti is definitely in the presence of a Purusha, and they become enmeshed and entangled when there is mis-identification between Prakriti and Purusha. False confusion between your Self and what’s not the Self is considered the fundamental ignorance that perpetuates bondage in this world. Liberation can be sought by becoming alert to such distinctions on a very deep degree of personal knowledge, in order that one may eventually use the great faculty of your brain — intellectual reflection (Buddhi/Mahat) — without mistakenly identifying it with the Purusha, and the effects of such entanglement will unravel and one will no longer come to be bound by incarnations or confused by Prakriti

In Samkhya philosophy a guna is usually among Prakriti’s three “tendencies”: tamas, sattva, and rajas. Guna is the tendency of the mind rather than the state. For example, sattva guna is that force which tends to bring the mind to purity but isn’t purity itself. Likewise rajas guna is certainly that force which tends to bring the mind to perform some action but is not action itself.

Sattva (originally “being, living, entity”) has been translated to indicate balance, buy, or purity. This typically means that a person with an increase of of Sattva includes a positive as well as orderly mind-set. Such one is psychologically kind, relaxed, alert and thoughtful.

Rajas leads someone to activity. This kind of activity is described by the word Yogakshem. Yogakshem is composed of two text: Yoga and Kshem. Yoga in today’s context is acquiring something that one does not have. Kshem means losing a thing that one already has. Rajas is the force that creates wishes for acquiring new stuff and fears for shedding something that one has. These desires and fears lead someone to activity.

Tamas features been translated to imply “too inactive”, negative, lethargic, dull, or slow. It’s the quality of inertia which provides coherence for all things. Mentally, it is connected with darkness, delusion, or ignorance. A tamas quality can also imply that one has a self-destructive or entropic mind-set. That person is constantly pursuing destructive activities.

Vedanta keeps that Brahman is the only Immaterial Sentient Presence; and being non-material and simple, It has to be all pervading and the only One Reality.

Before everything there exists Reality as Absolute Awareness. The ‘Will’ to become many is the beginning of manifest universe. The Might evolves as Illusion: the Maya. ‘Absolute Awareness, Brahman, willed to become many’, that is Maya. Maya may be the cosmic illusion that makes ignorance and veils the eyesight of the Only Actuality. Due to the electric power of Maya, the Same Oneness is usually perceived as manifold universe. Absolute Awareness was never modified, is not modified, and can not be modified. It is the basis of Advaita Vedanta. Based on their experience the ‘seers’ or ‘rishis’ of ancient ages deducted that the entire manifest universe is the illusory expression of 1 Substance -the Absolute General Consciousness. Samkhya with it’s dual philosophy can be said to be the foundation of The Yogasutras and Purusa and Prakriti are a fundamental part of the text.

The origin of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is the subject matter of some debate among both historians and practitioners. For example, there are some persons who credit the posting of this set of sutras to a grammarian named Patanjali. Later, nevertheless, a timeline was made that demonstrated that to be unlikely. Within the yoga community, though, many say that Patanjali was truly just a compiler and that prior to the work was written, the Sutras were basically memorized and passed down between teacher and pupil. Timelines do, though, suggest this text message was constructed in about the second century B.C.

An objective study might well suggest that Patanjali resided within a good more tight selection of 200 BC to 200 AD (or around enough time of Jesus), than some typically common suppositions (as if he were the next century BCE grammarian by the same brand) or even the second or third centuries CE predicated on the dates of the initial extant commentary (by Vyasa).

ATHA YOGANUSASANAM

Atha = now, Yoga = Of Yoga, Anusasanam = exposition or instruction.

Now the exposition of Yoga is being made.

(Patanjali Ch-1, Vs-1)

“The name of the text is known as using Sanskrit thoughts: yoga, is normally a mindset wherein it is possible to gain mastery of feelings and thoughts alike. Sutra basically means “thread.” This thread is actually the connection between the sutras in the task. These Sutras are just combinations of words and phrases threaded together – sometimes not even very well formed sentences with subjects, predicates etc. Within the space of the 196 short Sutras, the whole research of Yoga is obviously delineated: its aim, the necessary practices, the obstacles one may meet along the path, their removal, and precise descriptions of the outcomes which will be obtained from such procedures.” (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-1).

(b) Provide a brief summary of the four chapters

The sutras in the written text are split into four literature (chapters). Fifty one of many sutras are within the book called Samadhi Pada, fifty-five of them happen to be in Sadhana Pada, fifty six are also in Vibhuti Pada, and thirty four of the sutras are available in Kaivalya Pada.

Yoga Sutras Chapter 1 – Concentration Samadhi Pada

The publication Samadhi Pada has sutras that are most considered fundamental to yoga. It emphasizes that yoga is about discipline and that it’s the ability to master your feelings and thoughts. Some of the most famous yoga sutras result from this particular book

Concentration: Chapter 1 of the Yoga Sutras is entitled Samadhi Pada, this means the chapter on focus. Chapter 1 describes yoga, witnessing five types of thoughts, uncoloring thoughts, the twin guidelines of practice and non-attachment, the phases of concentration, work and commitments, obstacles and alternatives, and means and results of stabilizing the mind.

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Yoga Sutras Chapter 2 – Practice Sadhana Pada

In the Sadhana Pada, there is much about practice since the Sanskrit word “sadhana” truly does suggest practice. This chapter can be where Kriya Yoga and the eight limbs of yoga primary appear. These factors reflect the idea that yoga is definitely both selfless and spiritual.

Practices: Chapter 2 of the Yoga Sutras is normally entitled Sadhana Pada, which means the chapter on practices. Chapter 2 outlines particular tools of attention that are used to systematically carve out, or cut away the obstacles of the inner mental shield that is blocking the light of the Self within. This consists of the primary 5 of the 8 rungs of yoga, referred to as ashtanga yoga.

Yoga in the type of action (kriya yoga) possesses three parts:

1) Schooling and purifying the senses (tapas),

2) Self-research in the context of teachings (svadhyaya),

3) Devotion and letting go in to the creative source from which we emerged (iswara pranidhana).

(tapah svadhyaya ishvara-pranidhana kriya-yogah)

Tapah = virtually ‘heat’ accepting the purifying areas of painful experience, purifying action, training the senses

Svadhyaya = lit ‘one’s private’ or self-research in the context of teachings, remembrance of sacred phrase or mantra

Iswara = innovative source, causal discipline, supreme Guru or instructor. Omniscient

But not Omnipotent

pranidhana = practicing the occurrence, commitment, devotion, surrender of fruits of practice, or contemplation.

Kriya-yogah = yoga of practice what is narrative essay, action, mental purification

Kriya Yoga: When considering life and spiritual methods, it is easy after that to remind yourself of this foundation by internally saying such phrases as, “I need to teach my senses, explore within, and let go of these attachments and aversions.” Contained in a

simple sentence like this is the outline of Kriya Yoga (that simple sentence has tapas, svadhyaya, and ishvara pranidhana).

Iswara pranidhana: The emphasis of iswara pranidhana practice is the release or surrender that is performed in a sincere, committed, or devotional attitude. It really is easy to get caught up in debates over the type of God, Guru, innovative source, and instructor. Yoga is quite broad and non-sectarian, departing it open to each individual how exactly to perceive these realities. The considerably more important portion is that of allowing go rather than holding on to the pictures and desires of the senses (tapas) and the non-public characteristics and make-up uncovered through introspection (svadhyaya).

Iswara: In the Upanishads, the term A�A?A�a�?wara is used to denote a state of collective consciousness. Consequently, The Lord is not a being that sits on a high pedestal beyond sunlight, moon, and stars; Iswara is in fact the state of Best Reality. But because of the lack of direct experience, The God offers been personified and granted various names and varieties by religions throughout the age ranges. When one expands one’s individual awareness to the Universal Consciousness, it is called Self-realization, for the individual self has noticed the unity of diversity, the underlying principle, or Universal Self, beneath all varieties and names. This can be the fundamental difference between monism and dualism, one is actually theistic and the various other is not.

Yoga Sutras Chapter 3 – Progressing Vibhuti Pada

The Vibhuti Pada can be translated “power.” The roles of the sutras in this particular book are to spell it out and help the yogi to accomplish full consciousness through yoga. It really is essentially about attaining higher degrees of awareness of one’s self.

Progressing: Chapter 3 of the Yoga Sutras is entitled Vibhuti Pada, this means the chapter on progressing. Chapter 3 begins by presenting the last 3 of the 8 rungs of yoga, which will be concentration, meditation, and samadhi, collectively referred to as samyama. The rest of the chapter explains how samyama is employed as the finer device to remove the subtler veils of ignorance.

The previous three rungs of Yoga: Dharana (concentration), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi are the final three rungs of Yoga.

Dharana: Concentration is the process of holding or repairing the attention of mind onto one object or place.

Dhyana: Meditation is definitely sustained concentration, whereby the attention continues to hold or do it again the same object or place.

Samadhi: Samadhi is the deep absorption, wherein only the essence of that object, place, or point shines forth in your brain, as if your brain were devoid actually of its own form.

Stages of attention: It is attention itself, which can be progressively shifting inward through these few stages:

Attention leads to concentration (dharana).

Concentration causes meditation (dhyana).

Meditation brings about absorption (samadhi).

Yoga Sutras Chapter 4 – Liberation Kaivalya Pada

Meaning of Kaivalya: The fourth chapter of the Yoga Sutras can be entitled “Kaivalya Pada.” The term “Kaivalya” literally translates as “isolation.” It is normally taken to mean liberation or enlightenment. However, how “isolation” is normally a quite powerful term is that real consciousness or purusha is now standing alone, separate from all of the manifestations of prakriti, incorporating literally each of the manifestations or swirlings of most levels of your brain field. In Sutra 1.16 supreme non-attachment is stated as a level beyond the many other degrees of attachment. Sutra 4.32 clarifies how the primary elements called gunas have finished their purpose and recede in ideal equilibrium into that from which they arose. These are aspects or byproducts of the process of the isolation (kaivalya) of pure awareness (purusha). Purusa generally is liberated from its attachment to Prakriti.

The purpose of the complete of creation is to provide us a context for understanding what we will be and what we aren’t. When we recognize that, then there is usually kaivalya, and prakrti has got fulfilled its purpose. A person who experiences kaivalya views prakrti, the materials world, simply as it is, without meaning beyond that.

Kaivalya describes the effect on the personality to be in a continuing state of samadhi. Here is the state of inner flexibility that yoga strives for. A person in the express of kaivalya understands the world so very well that he stands apart from it in the feeling that he’s not influenced by it, although he might well be in a position to influence the universe. People in kaivalya behave like regular people, nevertheless they do not carry the responsibility of the world on the shoulders. They live in the world, but they are not at the mercy of it. They aren’t clear of sensual perception or free from the body, they contain a “foot” in both “worlds”. Wherever they are actually, they are sure of themselves. That’s kaivalya. External forces haven’t any power over a person such as this, though he has learned the external world very well.

(c) Choose two of the following topics:

Yogic concept of the mind

The Kleshas

Kriya Yoga

Significance of Iswara

The Siddhis

The Yogic idea of the mind

YOGAS CITTA VRTTI NIRODHAH

Yogas = Yoga, Chitta = of the mind stuff, Vritti = alterations, Nirodhah = restraint.

The restraint of the alterations of the mind stuff is Yoga

(Patanjali Ch-1, Vs-2)

In this Sutra Patanjali gives the goal of Yoga. For a keen student that one Sutra will be enough since the rest of them only explain that one. If the restraint of the mental alterations is achieved one has reached the goal of Yoga. The complete science of Yoga is founded on this. Patanjali has granted this is of Yoga and at the same time the practice. “If you can control the increasing of the mind into ripples, you will experience Yoga” (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-3,4).

“Normally, the term Yoga is definitely translated as “union”, but for a union there should be two things to unite. In this case, what’s to unite with what? So here we have Yoga to mean the Yogic knowledge. The extraordinary experience gained by controlling the modifications of the mind itself is called Yoga” (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-1, Pg-4).

There is certainly a Sanskrit expressing; “Mana eva manushyanam karanam bandha mokshayoho.” “As the mind, so the man; bondage; or liberation are in your mind.” In the event that you feel bound, you are bound. In the event that you feel liberated you happen to be liberated. Points outside neither bind nor liberate you; only your attitude toward them will that.

These vrittis, or mental activities/modifications, are said to be either painful, or certainly not painful. They are five-fold :-

PRAMANA VIPARYAYA VIKALPA NIDRA SMRTAYAH

Pramana = right knowledge; Viparyaya = misconception, Vikalpa = verbal delusions, Nidra = rest, Smritayah = memory

The are right knowledge, misconception, verbal delusion, rest and memory

(Patanjali Ch-I, Vs-6 )

Patanjali explains that right-knowledge can be acquired by immediate perception, inference, or testimony. In other words, you can sail the ocean privately and bring back direct knowledge, or you can listen to of the travels undertaken by another sailor explorer, or one can read the book written by the sailor on his go back. Even right-knowledge is even so limited as the initial sailor still cannot understand everything there is to learn about the ocean he is exploring.

Wrong-expertise is definitely likened to the delusion we experience whenever we see something and believe that it to be something else, such as a snake in the dark which proves to get nothing but a rope when seen in daylight.

Imagination is certainly perception which is definitely coloured by fanciful thoughts or dreams. The dreaming phase of sleep known as the REM phase is littered with random thought patterns, but even the deep-sleep level, which leaves no conscious trace in the mind, is truly a stage of thought. The sleeper knows nothing at all, but knows that he realized nothing on waking. All extraneous idea is definitely temporarily suspended and only the very thought of emptiness remains to leave the feeling on waking.

Memory is the procedure for remembering past knowledge. Each memory is 1st processed to make it palatable, and then filed for near future reference, leaving the feeling in the mind. These impressions can often remain on the surface of the mind and be recalled at will, or sink to underneath where they take root.

Patanjali describes the restless head as outgoing (paranga cetana) and the peaceful inward-turned head as (pratyak cetana) I.29. When your brain targets external influences the Self seems to assume the forms and photos projected by your brain. When the vritti actions are quietened through sensory withdrawal, concentration, and meditation, gentleman is said to rest in his true nature.

Patanjali provides us two tools which will help us control your brain – abhyasa or regular, sustained practice, and vairagya, a process of detachment from things of desire, which is definitely attained as the result of abhyasa. Patanjali likens both claims of brain to a mirror. When the mirror is usually dusty or smeared, it reflects a distorted graphic of whatever it displays. When the mirror is certainly cleaned the image is normally reflected without distortion, shining in its own essence – samadhi. Patanjali concludes by saying that achievements in Yoga depends on the strength of our desire to have enlightenment, and the quantity of effort we are prepared to placed into our practice.

The Siddhis

KAYEDRIYA SIDDHIR ASUDDHI KSAYAT TAPASAH

Kaya = physique, Indriya = senses, Siddhi = occult powers, Asuddhi = impurities, kshayat = because of destruction, Tapasah =

austerities.

By austerity, impurities of your body and senses are destroyed and occult powers gained.

(Patanjali Ch-2, Vs-43)

Siddhi is definitely a Sanskrit word that practically means “accomplishment”, “attainment”, or “success”. It is also applied as a term for spiritual vitality (or psychic ability). The term is used in that impression in Hinduism and Tantric Buddhism. These spiritual powers supposedly change from relatively simple forms of clairvoyance to being able to levitate, to be present at various places at once, to become no more than an atom, to materialize things, to have access to memories from past lives, and more.

There are various perspectives of attaining Siddhis. One school of thought states that they are a normal group of occurrences that should not be focused after because they will pull one from the path. Other perspectives hold that every siddhi ought to be pursued because it will allow one to understand the power of the Godhead. Siddhis may occur in lots of ways: naturally though the agency of karma, therefore of expanded practice (sadhana), through rigorous austerities (tapasya) or by grace. They are often mentioned together with Riddhi (pl Riddhis), which means material or worldly riches, power, deluxe lifestyles, etc.

TRAYAM EKATRA SAMYAMAH

Trayam = the three; Ekatra = after one object; samyama = the practice of dharana, dhyana and samadhi.

The practice of these three (dharana, dhyana and samadhi)upon a person object is named samyama.

(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-4)

From the practice of samyama, come the siddhis. You dive deeply into an object or idea, and it releases its secrets. In ways, scientists did samyama on the atomic particles. The contaminants released their energy, and the scientists got the knowledge of them. They accomplished the truth behind the contaminants. Samyama is usually done on things or ideas connected with outcomes. When the effects come, you call them siddhis or vibhuti. (Patanjali Ch-3, Pg-177).

TAD VAIRAGYAD API DOSA BIJA KSAYE KAIVALYAM

Tad = that; Vairagyat = by non attachment; Api = possibly; Dosha bija = seed of bondage; Kshaye = destroyed; Kaivalyam = independence.

By non attachment also to that (all these siddhis), the seed of bondage is destroyed and therefore follows Kaivalya (Independence)

(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-51)

“This means that those siddhis are beautiful, however they will bind us, because siddhis will be the outcome of your brain. The mind wants something. It wants to achieve this or that. What for? To be proud of itself, It evolves ego, It makes your “I” and “mine” bigger, Selfish desires are still there.”

“So are the siddhis negative? If so why are they presently there? I say they aren’t bad. They are gorgeous; they are great. When? They come to you. When you follow them they are terrible. That’s all of the difference. Allow siddhis arrive and beg.” Don’t turn into a slave or attached to siddhis let them arrive to you and become used as tools (Sri Swami Satchidananda – The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali – Ch-3, Pg-199,200).

Nine main Siddhis

Parkaya Pravesha: Parkaya Pravesh means one’s soul entering into the body of someone else. Through this knowledge a good dead body could be taken to life.

Haadi Vidya: This Vidya or understanding has been mentioned in several ancient texts. On obtaining this Vidya, a person feels neither food cravings nor thirst, and may remain without consuming food or drinking water for many days at a stretch.

Kaadi Vidya: Being an does not feel hungry or thirsty in Haadi Vidya, in the same way in Kaadi Vidya a person is not influenced by change of seasons, i.e. by summer season, winter, rainfall, etc. After accomplishing this Vidya, a person shall not feel cold even if he sits in the snow-laden mountains, and shall certainly not feel hot even if he sits in the fire.

Vayu Gaman Siddhi: Through this Siddhi a person can become with the capacity of flying in the skies and journeying from one spot to another in only a few seconds.

Madalasa Vidya: On accomplishing this Vidya, a person turns into with the capacity of increasing or decreasing the size of his physique according to his wish. Lord Hanuman had miniaturized his physique through this Vidya while entering the town of Lanka.

Kanakdhara Siddhi: You can acquire immense and unlimited prosperity through this Siddhi.

Prakya Sadhana: Through this Sadhana a Yogi can direct his disciple to have birth from the womb of a woman who is childless or cannot bear kids.

Surya Vigyan: This solar technology is one of the most significant sciences of historical India. This research has been known and then the Indian Yogis; using it, one substance can be transformed into another through the moderate of sun rays.

Mrit Sanjeevani Vidya: This Vidya was created by Guru Shukracharya. Through it, even a dead person can be brought back alive.

I recognise some of these Siddhis from the Shaman rituals that happen to be carried out, for example the native americans utilized rituals/dances and trances to empthise and undertake the characteristics and vitality of wolves and eagles, putting on feathers and or wolf hide etc. to help invoke the powers.

(d) List the yamas and niyamas and present a brief translation of their brands. Do you feel they are rules to be observed? Or are they the result of sustained practice of yoga?

Yamas:

There are many interpretations of and opinions about the yamas and niyamas. As the ancient Indian text, the Bhagavata Purana assigns 12 yogic restraints the Parashar Smriti, another text message, puts forward ten. However the yamas as explained in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras there are only five, which are generally known as the great universal vows or the sarvabhauma maha vratas, because they are not tied to either class, creed, time or circumstances. They are the guidelines for how exactly we connect to the outer globe, the social disciplines to guide us in our relationships with others. These five will be:

A?a��A? Ahimsa (non-violence),

A?a��A? Satya (truthfulness),

A?a��A? Asteya (non-stealing),

A?a��A? Brahmacharya (celibacy) and

A?a��A? Aparigraha (non-covetousness)

Niyamas:

The niyamas are the second constituents of Ashtanga Yoga. How we interact with ourselves, our internal community. The niyamas are about self-regulation-helping us maintain a positive environment where to increase. Their practice harnesses the energy produced from the cultivation of the earlier yamas. Relating to sage Yajnavalkya, there happen to be ten niyamas and the Bhagavad Gita lists 11 constituents. But Patanjali names just five:

A?a��A? Shaucha or purity,

A?a��A? Santosha or contentment,

A?a��A? Tapa or austerity,

A?a��A? Swadhyaya or self-education and

A?a��A? Ishwar-Pranidhan or meditation on the Divine

The Benefits of Practicing Yamas and Niyamas:

The yamas and niyamas help in managing our energy within an integrative method, complementing our outer life to our inner creation. They help us check out ourselves with compassion and consciousness. They assist in respecting the values of the life, in balancing our internal growth with external restraint. In a nutshell they support us to lead a conscious-life.

Yamas and niyamas are not about right and incorrect. They are about being honest with the true Self. Living regarding to these rules are about living our lives in an improved way, about moving towards a knowledge, about making it possible to ‘connect’ with the Divine.

(e) Define the terms dharana, dhyana and samadhi. Briefly summarise the distinctions between them.

The last three rungs of Yoga: Dharana (focus), dhyana (meditation), and samadhi are the last three rungs of Yoga.

Dharana: Concentration is the procedure for holding or repairing the attention of mind onto one object or place.

DESABANDHAS CITTASYA DHARANA

Desabandhah = binding to 1 place; chittasya = of the mind ; dharana = concentration.

Dharana may be the binding of the mind to one place, object or idea.

(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-1).

Dhyana: Meditation is normally sustained concentration, whereby the attention continues to carry or do it again the same object or place.

TATRA PRATYAYAIKATANATA DHYANAM

Tatra = therein; Pratyaya = move of cognition; Ekatanata = continued; Dhyanam = meditation.

Dhyana is the continuous circulation of cognition toward that object.

(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-2).

Samadhi: Samadhi is the deep absorption, wherein simply the essence of this object, place, or stage shines forth in the mind, as if your brain were devoid also of its own form.

TAD EVARTHMATRA NIRBHASAM SVARUPA SUNYAM IVA SAMADHIH

Tad eva = that (meditation) itself; Arthamatra = the thing only; Nirbhasam = shining; Svarupa = of its form; Sunyam = devoid of; Iva = as though samadhih = contemplation.

Samadhih may be the same meditation when there is the shinig of the thing alone, as if without form.

(Patanjali Ch-3, Vs-3).

The distinctions between Dharana, Meditation and Samadhi are subtle but profound, in my view they are more complimentary than different, they are such as a two dimensional jigsaw, when joined up becomes three-dimensional.

In Dharana you happen to be training the mind. It’s the beginning of meditation. Concentration is the beginning of meditation. Normally, we see our head running here and there. When we make an effort to fix it using one matter, within a fraction of another we see it someplace else, keeping it fixed using one thing is concentration.

Meditation may be the culmination of concentration, constant flow; it is like pouring oil in one pot into another. The mind is fixed; interaction between meditator and object is usually steady.

Time and space does not have any meaning in meditation; when you feel five minutes as one hour, you aren’t meditating; you remain concentrating, whereas when one hour feels like five minutes that is meditation.

Meditation culminates in the point out of Samadhih. One can’t consciously practice Samadhih. In Samadhih there is definitely neither the object nor the meditator. There is absolutely no sense of “I am meditating on that”.

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